Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 2022-08-10T09:55:49-06:00 CJLT Managing Editor Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology</em> (CJLT) is a peer-reviewed journal that welcomes papers on all aspects of educational technology and learning. Topics may include: learning theory and technology, cognition and technology, instructional design theory and application, online learning, computer applications in education, simulations and gaming, and other aspects of the use of technology in the learning process. Manuscripts may be submitted either in English or in French. CJLT is available free-of-charge to anyone with access to the Internet and there are no artcle submission or access charges for publication.</p> <p>CJLT is indexed in Scopus, Web of Science (ESCI), ERIC, DOAJ, Ulrichs, Google Scholar, EBSCO, and others.</p> Editorial 2022-07-29T12:57:45-06:00 Martha Cleveland-Innes Sawsen Lakhal <p>The pandemic experience has, to date, been inspiring, illuminating, and challenging for the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology editors, authors, and reviewers. We are ready to present the following overview of issue 48(1).</p> 2022-08-10T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Martha Cleveland-Innes; Sawsen Lakhal Learning, Technology, and Technique 2022-05-14T15:17:19-06:00 Jon Dron <p class="MsoNormal">To be human is to be a user, a creator, a participant, and a co-participant in a richly entangled tapestry of technologies – from computers to pedagogical methods - that make us who we are as much as our genes. The uses we make of technologies are themselves, nearly always, <em>also </em>technologies, techniques we add to the entangled mix to create new assemblies. The technology of greatest interest is thus not any of the technologies that form that assembly, but the assembly itself. Designated teachers are never alone in creating the assembly that teaches. The technology of learning almost always involves the co-participation of countless others, notably learners themselves but also the creators of systems, artifacts, tools, and environments with and in which it occurs. Using these foundations, this paper presents a framework for understanding the technological nature of learning and teaching, through which it is possible to explain and predict a wide range of phenomena, from the value of one-to-one tutorials, to the inadequacy of learning style theories as a basis for teaching, and to see education not as a machine made of methods, tools, and systems but as a complex, creative, emergent collective unfolding that both makes us, and is made of us.</p> 2022-08-10T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jon Dron Editorial 2022-03-29T16:45:14-06:00 Lakhal Sawsen Martha Cleveland-Innes <p>We are pleased to publish the final 2021 issue of CJLT/RCAT which includes five empirical articles and a book review. Articles focus on teacher professional development and the use of technology in teaching and learning in elementary, secondary, and higher education.</p> <p>Collectively, CJLT Volume 47 Issue 3, 2021 brings together research findings from Africa (Tunisia, Kenya, and Nigeria), Asia (India), and Canada in primary, secondary, and higher education. CJLT has supported the advancement of research on teaching and learning with digital technologies in Canada and around the world and will continue to do so in the coming years. We hope that you will find in our journal some answers to the many questions that have arisen from the pedagogical transformations that have been necessary over the past two years to adapt to the pandemic context, and which open the door to pedagogical innovations in the future.</p> <p>We sincerely thank our reviewers for their time in reviewing the manuscripts.</p> 2022-05-02T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lakhal Sawsen, Martha Cleveland-Innes A Typology Proposition of Effective Visual Programming Practices 2022-05-09T13:41:49-06:00 Simon Parent <p>This article presents the results of a multiple-case study conducted with 18 primary school students in Quebec, Canada. The objective of this study was to propose a typology of effective visual programming practices of primary school students. In addition to offering a detailed portrait of the practices mobilized by the students in this research, we present a typology of visual programming tasks for primary school students based on the literature and on empirical data from the use of a pedagogical scenario which allows students to mobilize their skills by programming a humanoid robot called NAO. This proposal for a comprehensive and adapted typology offers a significant pedagogical potential, whether for the design of pedagogical scenarios mobilizing visual programming in primary education, or for the development of textbooks or pedagogical guides for primary school students or teachers.</p> 2022-08-10T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Simon Parent Teaching Machines: The History of Personalized Learning, 2021. 2021-12-21T17:25:27-07:00 Irina Tursunkulova <p><em>Teaching Machines </em>by journalist Audrey Watters blends the historical and political events of 1920-1960s in the United States and the changes in the K-12 school system, chronicling the rapid development of educational technology markets to show the inception and evolution of teaching machines. The author expresses her indignance towards Silicon Valley entrepreneurs who continue launching educational businesses, under the assumption that their “new” technological breakthrough will change the “stagnant” field of education technology. This book explicates how the “new idea” of personalized learning offered by current educational technology companies and industries dates back a century to the 1920s.</p> 2022-08-10T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Irina Tursunkulova Creating Online Learning Experiences: A Brief Guide to Online Courses, from Small and Private to Massive and Open, 2018 2021-12-09T11:40:11-07:00 Alicia Cundell <p>This book is an expanded version of a guide originally written by the lead author, Matt Crosslin, to serve as a resource for faculty. The book shares lessons learned as the author designed Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and other online courses for the now defunct LINK Research Lab at University of Texas Arlington. At the time of writing the book, Crosslin worked as a Learning Innovation Researcher at the LINK Lab. This expanded version of the book is an Open Educational Resource (OER) (also available in print) with contributions from other authors or contributors that bring diverse perspectives to reach a wider audience. The information and advice in this book is firmly rooted in the experiences of the contributors developing successful online courses, and the ultimate goal is to “<em>provide clarity about many of the steps required to propose and design a course, describe the resources needed, and to explain the roles of stakeholders</em>” (p.1).</p> 2022-05-02T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alicia Cundell Editorial: Volume 47 Issue 2 2021-11-17T10:20:54-07:00 Sawsen Lakhal Martha Cleveland-Innes <p>Collectively, CJLT Issue 2, 2021 brings together the results of research conducted in Europe, Latin America, and Canada. CJLT has supported the advancement of research on teaching and learning with digital technologies in Canada and around the world for many years and will continue to do so in the coming years. We hope that you will find in our journal answers to the many questions you have about the pedagogical transformations that have been necessary to better adapt to current demands.</p> <p>We thank our reviewers for the time invested in reviewing the manuscripts.</p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sawsen Lakhal, Martha Cleveland-Innes Editorial 2021-07-29T08:51:58-06:00 Martha Cleveland-Innes Sawsen Lakhal <p>As the COVID-19 pandemic slowly subsides, this journal, which focuses on learning and technology, is overwhelmed with article submissions. The education response to the health and safety requirements of the pandemic included the use of new technologies for learning in many education spaces and geographic places. Suffice to say that the interest in the topic of technology-enabled learning has increased exponentially. Over the last year we have received more than double our usual number of submissions. While an exciting transformation in the field of education, we were unprepared for the influx. Many of our authors and reviewers work in some sector of education, as does the editorial team of the journal. Currently caught up with our response to submissions, there continues to be some delay in securing agreement and support from reviewers, many of whom are still dealing with the demand on education to continue near-normal delivery. As interest and expertise in the field develops, and with hope that the pandemic continues to subside, we expect to see these recent time delays diminish over the next year.</p> 2021-08-09T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Martha Cleveland-Innes, Sawsen Lakhal Analysing an Interactive Problem-Solving Task Through the Lens of Double Stimulation 2022-02-08T09:21:22-07:00 Margarida Romero Sylvie Barma <p>Problem-solving activities have been studied from a diversity of epistemological perspectives. In problem-solving activities, the initial tensions of a problematic situation led to a cognitive dissonance between conflicting motives and instruments to reach the activity goal. We analyze problem-solving in the continuation of Sannino and Laitinen’s (2015) approach to the analysis of a decision-forming apparatus. The originality of this study is in consideration of the materialistic nature of double stimulation that appears during the activity of the CreaCube problem-solving task. This activity engages the participant in solving tasks with interactive robotic instruments. To solve a task, the subject is required to build interactive robotic modules into a specific configuration which will cause the artifact to move from an initial position to a predetermined final position. The conflict of stimuli in the CreaCube is strong and observable because of the tangibility of the artifact, which is manipulated by the participant into different configurations with the goal of solving the task. We discuss double stimulation in relation to the artifactual interactive affordances of educational robotics.</p> 2022-08-10T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Margarida Romero, Sylvie Barma 25 Years of Ed Tech, 2020 By Martin Weller. Athabasca University Press. 2021-06-16T08:41:45-06:00 Brenna Clarke Gray <p>Martin Weller’s <em>25 Years of Ed Tech</em> is a necessary – and surprisingly fun! – review of the technologies, practices, pedagogies, and historical amnesias that have created (and plagued) the field of educational technologies for the last two and a half decades. In tracing the major technological developments, Weller also outlines the trends that shape these developments, and suggests some rules for good practice as we look towards a future where technology-enabled learning is almost certainly the norm, if not the default.</p> 2021-08-09T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Brenna Clarke Gray Editorial: Systemic Perspectives on New Alignments During COVID-19: Digital Challenges and Opportunities 2021-05-27T16:44:53-06:00 Thérèse Laferrière Margaret Cox <p>This overview of the articles presented in this issue considers the digital challenges and opportunities of the systemic perspectives on new alignments resulting from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. New challenges and opportunities were addressed by the 13 working groups of EDUsummIT2019 prior to the pandemic. However, the evidence and analyses presented in this issue have built on those originally identified perspectives by reviewing recent (2020/2021) research, development and practice across many educational sectors and contexts. We have shown that the status quo in the majority of education systems across the world has been thrown out of kilter. This has resulted in new alignments needing to be made to take account of the enforced remote learning when schools have been closed and blended learning has become widely practised even at school level. The most prominent of these have been caused by changes in digital equity which consequently imposes new challenges to policy makers, teachers and learners. This special issue stimulates reflection in and on practice as well as help problematizing new research challenges.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Thérèse Laferrière, Margaret Cox Editorial 2021-05-17T09:55:29-06:00 Martha Cleveland-Innes Sawsen Lakhal <p>More than one year after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, we release a delayed Issue #3, Fall 2020, of CJLT. As an education journal, we were not immune to the effects of the pandemic. Most authors and reviewers work in some sector of education, as does the editorial team of the journal. The demand on education to continue near-normal delivery, while keeping students safe, created innovative responses alongside unskillful use of varying types of distance delivery and technology-enabled learning. The illumination of the complexity, challenges, and, for some, the benefits of such alternative education delivery methods is unprecedented. Insight, debate, and critique on the topics of remote teaching and the more sophisticated online design and delivery is more common than it was a year ago.</p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Martha Cleveland-Innes; Sawsen Lakhal Teaching and Learning with Technology During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Highlighting the Need for Micro-Meso-Macro Alignments 2021-05-03T08:36:35-06:00 Joke Voogt Gerald Knezek <p>All over the world teaching and learning transitioned to forms of online education due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this contribution, we recognize challenges that this disruptive change brought about for teachers and learners. We reflect on these challenges, based on discussions at EDUsummIT2019 in Quebec about the theme “Learners and learning contexts: New alignments for the digital age”. Informed by theoretical conceptualization and empirical evidence we identify micro-meso-macro alignments that need to be in place to move education into the digital age: alignments for quality learning contexts, alignments in support for teachers, and alignments through partnerships.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Joke Voogt, Gerald Knezek MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South: A Review 2021-03-23T11:08:00-06:00 Christopher Devers <p>This timely and eye-opening book from Ke Zhang, Curt Bonk, Tom Reeves, and Tom Reynolds, <em>MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South</em> (Zhang, Bonk, Reeves, &amp; Reynolds, 2020), provides 28 chapters that describe the challenges, successes, and opportunities of MOOCs and open education from the perspective of 68 authors from 47 countries in the Global South ( Before those chapters, a detailed preface from the four editors lays out the journey that the world community took to get to this point in the metaphor of a wanderer who makes his or her path by pushing ahead and exploring the road in front. In addition, an insightful foreword is provided by Mimi Miyoung Lee from the University of Houston who had previously co-edited an award-winning book with Bonk, Reeves, and Reynolds; namely, <em>MOOCs and Open Education Around the World</em> (Bonk, Lee, Reeves, &amp; Reynolds, 2015). Thus, consider the current book Part 2 of what is likely to become a many act play in the world of MOOCs and open education. With the foreword and preface, there are 30 pieces in total (Note: the front matter is available for free from:</p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Christopher Devers Boundary Crossing between Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities: A Pathway for Advancing e-Learning Sustainability 2021-03-03T12:53:11-07:00 Kathlyn Bradshaw Jennifer Lock Gale Parchoma <p>In this article, third generation cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) (Engeström, 2011) will be the means for analyzing tensions and contradictions between formal and informal learning within a MOOC design. This article builds on previous work (Bradshaw, Parchoma &amp; Lock, 2017) wherein cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) was used to establish formal and informal learning as activity systems. Formal and informal learning are considered in relation to designing learning for a MOOC environment.&nbsp; Findings from an&nbsp;<em>in situ&nbsp;</em>study specifically examining CHAT elements in the process of design are considered in a movement towards making visible what those tasked with designing courses normally do not see in relation to informal learning. Implications for practice are presented in a CHAT-Informed MOOC design model intended to augment typical approaches to instructional design. The outcome is an argument for CHAT-Informed MOOC design model can intentionally address both formal and informal opportunities for learning.</p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kathlyn Bradshaw, Jennifer Lock Distance Learning and Assessment of Mathematics During COVID-19 2021-02-18T11:07:15-07:00 Melanie Tremblay Anne-Michèle Delobbe <p>The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in a multitude of measures to counter its spread. These included the closure of schools and an unplanned shift to distance learning. This paper focuses on the teaching-learning-evaluation dynamics (May-June 2020) in mathematics with 311 primary and secondary teachers. Four main issues are identified: comfort in using technology, access to technological resources for students, development of in-depth understanding, and learning assessment. The mathematical activity conducted in a synchronous mode is further discussed, and the importance of knowledge transmission and of textbook-based problem solving is highlighted. Essential knowledge, effort, and participation are the main objects of teachers’ attention as they make their judgements in the evaluation process. The choice of these learning objects seems to have been influenced by the various ministerial decisions that preceded the return to compulsory schooling.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Melanie Tremblay, Anne-Michèle Delobbe Assessing Students’ Learning Attitude and Academic Performance Through m-Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic 2021-07-15T09:59:21-06:00 Bamidele Aremu Olufemi Adeoluwa <p><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> <w:SplitPgBreakAndParaMark/> <w:DontVertAlignCellWithSp/> <w:DontBreakConstrainedForcedTables/> <w:DontVertAlignInTxbx/> <w:Word11KerningPairs/> <w:CachedColBalance/> </w:Compatibility> <m:mathPr> <m:mathFont m:val="Cambria Math"/> <m:brkBin m:val="before"/> <m:brkBinSub m:val="--"/> <m:smallFrac m:val="off"/> <m:dispDef/> <m:lMargin m:val="0"/> <m:rMargin m:val="0"/> <m:defJc m:val="centerGroup"/> <m:wrapIndent m:val="1440"/> <m:intLim m:val="subSup"/> <m:naryLim m:val="undOvr"/> </m:mathPr></w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--></p> <div> <div> <p class="Default">This study aimed to assess college of education students’ learning attitude and academic performance in using m-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study employed a pre-test and post-test experimental research design with 50 students from the College of Education, Ikere Ekiti, Nigeria. Two research instruments were used to collect data from the participants on two occasions. The first instrument was a students’ attitude questionnaire that measured the attitude of the participants towards learning. The second instrument was the students’ academic performance test that measured the students’ scores. The differences between pre- and post-tests were measured through independent t-test. Demographic data are presented in a bar chart and show that the majority of the students own mobile devices that were suitable for learning; that the majority of the students used mobile devices for learning; and that all the respondents in the experimental group possessed mobile devices with the Zoom app. The pre-test findings revealed no significant differences in the attitude and performance of students towards m-learning and traditional learning (p&gt;0.005) while the post-test findings showed significant differences in the attitude and performance of students towards m-learning and traditional learning (p&lt;0.005). These findings suggest that m-learning should be integrated into the school curriculum.</p> </div> </div> 2022-05-02T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Bamidele Aremu, Olufemi Adeoluwa Approaches and Paradigms for Research on the Educational uses of Technologies: Challenges and Perspectives 2021-02-09T12:57:21-07:00 Georges-Louis Baron Fluckiger Cédric <p>The following lines present a reflection started at the EDUsummIT2019 in Quebec City, notably in a working group on desirable research paradigms in the study of educational uses of information and communication technologies. It deconstructs the notion of scaling up innovations and questions the tension between different research paradigms, criticizing the simplistic views of some policy makers who promote a particular type of research that focuses solely on scaling up in terms of results. Finally, the paper argues for plural participatory approaches that associate sustainable hybrid collectives.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Georges-Louis Baron, Fluckiger Cédric Learning Leaders: Teaching and Learning Frameworks in Flux Impacted by the Global Pandemic 2021-02-09T12:55:53-07:00 Margaret Cox Barry Quinn <p>This article builds on the work of EDUsummIT2019’s thematic working group 2 (TWG2) focus on “Learning as Learning Leaders: How does leadership for learning emerge beyond the traditional teaching models?” Using the well-established theoretical frameworks of Entwistle (1987) and Shulman (1987) the most significant influences on how learning leaders need to adjust to accommodate the dramatic increase in remote online learning are identified. The major influences include learners’ previous knowledge, self-confidence, abilities and motives, and changes between learning initiated by teachers and that by learners. <br />COVID-19 has caused a massive upskilling of people in all facets of society from children to grandparents, from media to consumers, and from policy makers to practitioners. None of the alignments nor factors identified in this article are static and learning leaders need to perpetually reconsider the factors identified to achieve successful learning outcomes. The ongoing challenges for educators in this changing world are in a permanent state of flux with an increasing IT literate society across all formal and informal sectors of education.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Margaret Cox, Barry Quinn Safe and Responsible Internet Use in a Connected World: Promoting Cyber-Wellness 2021-02-09T12:46:28-07:00 Cathy Lewin Dale Niederhauser Quinn Johnson Toshinori Saito Akira Sakamoto Roger Sherman <p>Cyber-wellness concerns positive wellbeing in online spaces, including awareness of how to behave appropriately and protect oneself. We explain and illustrate the complex nature of cyber-wellness, focusing on four key aspects. Firstly, developing students’ information and media literacy skills is essential for promoting cyber-wellbeing. Such skills are also required for supporting democratic participation. Secondly, we identify and discuss the threats and challenges to young people’s cyber-wellbeing, arguing for the need to develop digital resilience. Thirdly, we discuss the role of policy at macro, meso and micro levels and how policy and educational practitioners can promote cyber-wellness awareness, knowledge and strategies. Finally we review the limited scholarship on cyber-wellness education and highlight the need to address this gap in the future. We conclude the article with consideration of the issues faced and opportunities for overcoming these. It is imperative that further work is undertaken on the conceptualisation of cyber-wellness and that concensus is developed. There are issues relating to the continual rapid developments of techologies and their uses; it is important to develop a shared understanding of the mutual relationship between technology and humans. Finally, there is a lack of guidance and good practice exemplars for cyber-wellness education.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Cathy Lewin, Dale Niederhauser, Quinn Johnson, Toshinori Saito, Akira Sakamoto, Roger Sherman