Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 2021-11-24T12:53:31-07:00 CJLT Managing Editor Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology</em> (CJLT) is a peer-reviewed journal that welcomes papers on all aspects of educational technology and learning. Topics may include: learning theory and technology, cognition and technology, instructional design theory and application, online learning, computer applications in education, simulations and gaming, and other aspects of the use of technology in the learning process. Manuscripts may be submitted either in English or in French. CJLT is available free-of-charge to anyone with access to the Internet and there are no artcle submission or access charges for publication.</p> <p>CJLT is indexed in Scopus, Web of Science (ESCI), ERIC, DOAJ, Ulrichs, Google Scholar, EBSCO, and others.</p> Editorial: Volume 47 Issue 2 2021-11-17T10:20:54-07:00 Sawsen Lakhal Martha Cleveland-Innes <p>Collectively, CJLT Issue 2, 2021 brings together the results of research conducted in Europe, Latin America, and Canada. CJLT has supported the advancement of research on teaching and learning with digital technologies in Canada and around the world for many years and will continue to do so in the coming years. We hope that you will find in our journal answers to the many questions you have about the pedagogical transformations that have been necessary to better adapt to current demands.</p> <p>We thank our reviewers for the time invested in reviewing the manuscripts.</p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sawsen Lakhal, Martha Cleveland-Innes Editorial 2021-07-29T08:51:58-06:00 Martha Cleveland-Innes Sawsen Lakhal <p>As the COVID-19 pandemic slowly subsides, this journal, which focuses on learning and technology, is overwhelmed with article submissions. The education response to the health and safety requirements of the pandemic included the use of new technologies for learning in many education spaces and geographic places. Suffice to say that the interest in the topic of technology-enabled learning has increased exponentially. Over the last year we have received more than double our usual number of submissions. While an exciting transformation in the field of education, we were unprepared for the influx. Many of our authors and reviewers work in some sector of education, as does the editorial team of the journal. Currently caught up with our response to submissions, there continues to be some delay in securing agreement and support from reviewers, many of whom are still dealing with the demand on education to continue near-normal delivery. As interest and expertise in the field develops, and with hope that the pandemic continues to subside, we expect to see these recent time delays diminish over the next year.</p> 2021-08-09T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Martha Cleveland-Innes, Sawsen Lakhal 25 Years of Ed Tech, 2020 By Martin Weller. Athabasca University Press. 2021-06-16T08:41:45-06:00 Brenna Clarke Gray <p>Martin Weller’s <em>25 Years of Ed Tech</em> is a necessary – and surprisingly fun! – review of the technologies, practices, pedagogies, and historical amnesias that have created (and plagued) the field of educational technologies for the last two and a half decades. In tracing the major technological developments, Weller also outlines the trends that shape these developments, and suggests some rules for good practice as we look towards a future where technology-enabled learning is almost certainly the norm, if not the default.</p> 2021-08-09T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Brenna Clarke Gray Editorial: Systemic Perspectives on New Alignments During COVID-19: Digital Challenges and Opportunities 2021-05-27T16:44:53-06:00 Thérèse Laferrière Margaret Cox <p>This overview of the articles presented in this issue considers the digital challenges and opportunities of the systemic perspectives on new alignments resulting from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. New challenges and opportunities were addressed by the 13 working groups of EDUsummIT2019 prior to the pandemic. However, the evidence and analyses presented in this issue have built on those originally identified perspectives by reviewing recent (2020/2021) research, development and practice across many educational sectors and contexts. We have shown that the status quo in the majority of education systems across the world has been thrown out of kilter. This has resulted in new alignments needing to be made to take account of the enforced remote learning when schools have been closed and blended learning has become widely practised even at school level. The most prominent of these have been caused by changes in digital equity which consequently imposes new challenges to policy makers, teachers and learners. This special issue stimulates reflection in and on practice as well as help problematizing new research challenges.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Thérèse Laferrière, Margaret Cox Editorial 2021-05-17T09:55:29-06:00 Martha Cleveland-Innes Sawsen Lakhal <p>More than one year after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, we release a delayed Issue #3, Fall 2020, of CJLT. As an education journal, we were not immune to the effects of the pandemic. Most authors and reviewers work in some sector of education, as does the editorial team of the journal. The demand on education to continue near-normal delivery, while keeping students safe, created innovative responses alongside unskillful use of varying types of distance delivery and technology-enabled learning. The illumination of the complexity, challenges, and, for some, the benefits of such alternative education delivery methods is unprecedented. Insight, debate, and critique on the topics of remote teaching and the more sophisticated online design and delivery is more common than it was a year ago.</p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Martha Cleveland-Innes; Sawsen Lakhal Teaching and Learning with Technology During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Highlighting the Need for Micro-Meso-Macro Alignments 2021-05-03T08:36:35-06:00 Joke Voogt Gerald Knezek <p>All over the world teaching and learning transitioned to forms of online education due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this contribution, we recognize challenges that this disruptive change brought about for teachers and learners. We reflect on these challenges, based on discussions at EDUsummIT2019 in Quebec about the theme “Learners and learning contexts: New alignments for the digital age”. Informed by theoretical conceptualization and empirical evidence we identify micro-meso-macro alignments that need to be in place to move education into the digital age: alignments for quality learning contexts, alignments in support for teachers, and alignments through partnerships.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Joke Voogt, Gerald Knezek MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South: A Review 2021-03-23T11:08:00-06:00 Christopher Devers <p>This timely and eye-opening book from Ke Zhang, Curt Bonk, Tom Reeves, and Tom Reynolds, <em>MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South</em> (Zhang, Bonk, Reeves, &amp; Reynolds, 2020), provides 28 chapters that describe the challenges, successes, and opportunities of MOOCs and open education from the perspective of 68 authors from 47 countries in the Global South ( Before those chapters, a detailed preface from the four editors lays out the journey that the world community took to get to this point in the metaphor of a wanderer who makes his or her path by pushing ahead and exploring the road in front. In addition, an insightful foreword is provided by Mimi Miyoung Lee from the University of Houston who had previously co-edited an award-winning book with Bonk, Reeves, and Reynolds; namely, <em>MOOCs and Open Education Around the World</em> (Bonk, Lee, Reeves, &amp; Reynolds, 2015). Thus, consider the current book Part 2 of what is likely to become a many act play in the world of MOOCs and open education. With the foreword and preface, there are 30 pieces in total (Note: the front matter is available for free from:</p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Christopher Devers Boundary Crossing between Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities: A Pathway for Advancing e-Learning Sustainability 2021-03-03T12:53:11-07:00 Kathlyn Bradshaw Jennifer Lock Gale Parchoma <p>In this article, third generation cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) (Engeström, 2011) will be the means for analyzing tensions and contradictions between formal and informal learning within a MOOC design. This article builds on previous work (Bradshaw, Parchoma &amp; Lock, 2017) wherein cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) was used to establish formal and informal learning as activity systems. Formal and informal learning are considered in relation to designing learning for a MOOC environment.&nbsp; Findings from an&nbsp;<em>in situ&nbsp;</em>study specifically examining CHAT elements in the process of design are considered in a movement towards making visible what those tasked with designing courses normally do not see in relation to informal learning. Implications for practice are presented in a CHAT-Informed MOOC design model intended to augment typical approaches to instructional design. The outcome is an argument for CHAT-Informed MOOC design model can intentionally address both formal and informal opportunities for learning.</p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kathlyn Bradshaw, Jennifer Lock Distance Learning and Assessment of Mathematics During COVID-19 2021-02-18T11:07:15-07:00 Melanie Tremblay Anne-Michèle Delobbe <p>The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in a multitude of measures to counter its spread. These included the closure of schools and an unplanned shift to distance learning. This paper focuses on the teaching-learning-evaluation dynamics (May-June 2020) in mathematics with 311 primary and secondary teachers. Four main issues are identified: comfort in using technology, access to technological resources for students, development of in-depth understanding, and learning assessment. The mathematical activity conducted in a synchronous mode is further discussed, and the importance of knowledge transmission and of textbook-based problem solving is highlighted. Essential knowledge, effort, and participation are the main objects of teachers’ attention as they make their judgements in the evaluation process. The choice of these learning objects seems to have been influenced by the various ministerial decisions that preceded the return to compulsory schooling.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Melanie Tremblay, Anne-Michèle Delobbe Approaches and Paradigms for Research on the Educational uses of Technologies: Challenges and Perspectives 2021-02-09T12:57:21-07:00 Georges-Louis Baron Fluckiger Cédric <p>The following lines present a reflection started at the EDUsummIT2019 in Quebec City, notably in a working group on desirable research paradigms in the study of educational uses of information and communication technologies. It deconstructs the notion of scaling up innovations and questions the tension between different research paradigms, criticizing the simplistic views of some policy makers who promote a particular type of research that focuses solely on scaling up in terms of results. Finally, the paper argues for plural participatory approaches that associate sustainable hybrid collectives.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Georges-Louis Baron, Fluckiger Cédric Learning Leaders: Teaching and Learning Frameworks in Flux Impacted by the Global Pandemic 2021-02-09T12:55:53-07:00 Margaret Cox Barry Quinn <p>This article builds on the work of EDUsummIT2019’s thematic working group 2 (TWG2) focus on “Learning as Learning Leaders: How does leadership for learning emerge beyond the traditional teaching models?” Using the well-established theoretical frameworks of Entwistle (1987) and Shulman (1987) the most significant influences on how learning leaders need to adjust to accommodate the dramatic increase in remote online learning are identified. The major influences include learners’ previous knowledge, self-confidence, abilities and motives, and changes between learning initiated by teachers and that by learners. <br />COVID-19 has caused a massive upskilling of people in all facets of society from children to grandparents, from media to consumers, and from policy makers to practitioners. None of the alignments nor factors identified in this article are static and learning leaders need to perpetually reconsider the factors identified to achieve successful learning outcomes. The ongoing challenges for educators in this changing world are in a permanent state of flux with an increasing IT literate society across all formal and informal sectors of education.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Margaret Cox, Barry Quinn Safe and Responsible Internet Use in a Connected World: Promoting Cyber-Wellness 2021-02-09T12:46:28-07:00 Cathy Lewin Dale Niederhauser Quinn Johnson Toshinori Saito Akira Sakamoto Roger Sherman <p>Cyber-wellness concerns positive wellbeing in online spaces, including awareness of how to behave appropriately and protect oneself. We explain and illustrate the complex nature of cyber-wellness, focusing on four key aspects. Firstly, developing students’ information and media literacy skills is essential for promoting cyber-wellbeing. Such skills are also required for supporting democratic participation. Secondly, we identify and discuss the threats and challenges to young people’s cyber-wellbeing, arguing for the need to develop digital resilience. Thirdly, we discuss the role of policy at macro, meso and micro levels and how policy and educational practitioners can promote cyber-wellness awareness, knowledge and strategies. Finally we review the limited scholarship on cyber-wellness education and highlight the need to address this gap in the future. We conclude the article with consideration of the issues faced and opportunities for overcoming these. It is imperative that further work is undertaken on the conceptualisation of cyber-wellness and that concensus is developed. There are issues relating to the continual rapid developments of techologies and their uses; it is important to develop a shared understanding of the mutual relationship between technology and humans. Finally, there is a lack of guidance and good practice exemplars for cyber-wellness education.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Cathy Lewin, Dale Niederhauser, Quinn Johnson, Toshinori Saito, Akira Sakamoto, Roger Sherman Editorial Volume 46 Issue 2 2020-12-17T09:48:22-07:00 Sawsen Lakhal Martha Cleveland-Innes 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sawsen Lakhal, Martha Cleveland-Inness eBook Technology Facilitating University Education During COVID-19: Japanese Experience 2020-12-21T11:01:51-07:00 Rwitajit Majumdar Brendan Flanagan Hiroaki Ogata <p>UNESCO reported that 90% of students are affected in some way by COVID-19 pandemic. Like many countries, Japan too imposed emergency remote teaching and learning at both school and university level. In this study, we focus on a national university in Japan, and investigate how teaching and learning were facilitated during this pandemic period using an ebook platform, BookRoll, which was linked as an external tool to the university’s learning management system. Such an endeavor also reinforced the Japanese national thrust regarding explorations of e-book-based technologies and using Artificial Intelligence in education. Teachers could upload reading materials for instance their course notes and associate an audio of their lecture. While students who registered in their course accessed the learning materials, the system collected their interaction logs in a learning record store. Across the spring semesters from April - July 2020, BookRoll system collected nearly 1.5 million reading interaction logs from more than 6300 students across 243 courses in 6 domains. The analysis highlighted that during emergency remote teaching and learning BookRoll maintained a weekly average traffic above 1,900 learners creating more than 78,000 reading logs and teachers perceived it as useful for orchestrating their course.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rwitajit Majumdar, Brendan Flanagan, Hiroaki Ogata Connected Learning for Young People in the Context of Formal French-Speaking Education 2020-12-19T16:43:37-07:00 Éric Bruillard Khansa Ghabara Sonia Huguenin Pier-Luc Jolicoeur Thérèse Laferrière Sophie Nadeau-Tremblay Cathia Papi Marie-Andrée Pelletier <p>Connected learning is a growing educational practice that was identified by EDUsummIT2019 delegates as a theme for their examination of the relationship between curriculum/pedagogical practices and learning assessment. This paper focuses on how connected learning has been interpreted and implemented in the French and Francophone cultural context, and suggests that border "crossings", which reflect its dynamism, enhance formal education, especially in cases of disadvantaged students or classes (isolated rural classes). This interpretation is based on historical benchmarks as well as on the notions of agency, interaction, and connection. The scope and implementation of this concept is illustrated by the case of the networked (remote) school, an innovation that adapts to different contexts, including that of COVID-19, by going back and forth between local and delocalized learning activity. Two questions emerge, one concerning the recognition of learning outside the context of formal education and the other, the management of misinformation.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Éric Bruillard, Khansa Ghabara, Sonia Huguenin, Pier-Luc Jolicoeur, Thérèse Laferrière, Sophie Nadeau-Tremblay, Cathia Papi, Marie-Andrée Pelletier Pedagogical Transformation and Teacher Learning for Knowledge Building: Turning COVID-19 Challenges into Opportunities 2021-02-08T15:34:32-07:00 Chew Lee Teo Seng Chee Tan Carol Chan ckkchan@HKU.HK <p>This paper reports on the continual effort of the Knowledge Building Community (KBC) connecting teachers within and across schools for knowledge creation and community building during the COVID-19 disruptions. During this crisis, schools around the world are challenged with the issues of implementing online learning. Three areas of misalignment were identified: disjoint in learning with home-school separation, piecemeal technologies to mimic physical teaching, and disconnect between teacher professional development and classroom practices and we discussed emerging realignment efforts for transformative learning. Through analyzing the three case examples of how teachers responded to COVID-19 challenges in inter-related areas of curriculum, pedagogy, technology and community, we identified several themes on emerging alignments conducive for transformative pedagogy and technology through community advancement. These themes include: innovating practice around the centrality of ideas; perceiving knowledge building as pervasive; transformative use of technology, and symmetrical advancement of knowledge. These case examples show that in these disruptive times, the teachers were more actively building new practices supported by community dynamics and systemic processes of the KBC. Consequently, the interactions between stakeholders shifted from disjointed relations in different hierarchical levels to a networked community of people, ideas, and resources, and teachers continually advancing their knowledge-building practice in these challenging times.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Chew Lee Teo, Seng Chee Tan, Carol Chan Emergence of Learning Analytics in Education: Challenges and Issues of Learning Analysis 2021-01-04T10:06:45-07:00 Séverine Parent Monique Baron <p>At the EDUsummIT 2019 colloquium, a working group reflected on the analysis of learning. As French-speaking members of this group, in this article we present and address the recommendations of the working group for the deployment of learning analysis in educational institutions in the near future. Some elements to consider in integrating learning analysis, including the role of service providers, the skills needed to interpret data, and the potential effects of such analyze on learning design, are addressed.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Séverine Parent, Français French Advancing Knowledge Creation in Education Through Tripartite Partnerships 2020-12-11T08:31:14-07:00 Sharon Friesen Barbara Brown <p>The purpose of this paper is to highlight the work of one tripartite partnership with stakeholders to improve and strengthen novice teachers’ pedagogical designs using design based professional learning guided by the principles of knowledge building/knowledge creation. The tripartite partnership involved 450 novice teachers from an urban school division, a practitioner-research university team, and the provincial government. Drawing upon one case, this paper analyzes the ways in which the design-based professional learning mirrored the knowledge building/knowledge creation processes highlighting the ways in which teachers worked in collaborative, collective, and connected ways to progressively improve pedagogical designs for collective knowledge building. Computer supported, networked digital technologies provided a community to develop an audit trail to keep track of progressive improvements and refinements to their pedagogical designs and to support, enable, and enhance knowledge building discourse. Design-based professional learning informed by the 12 principles of knowledge building/knowledge creation provided novice teachers with a process to work collectively as a community, progressively improving and refining their pedagogical designs, identifying the role of their pedagogical designs in their students’ work, and engaging with other teachers in their respective schools.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sharon Friesen, Barbara Brown Book Review of Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity, 2018 2020-11-25T14:20:38-07:00 Michael Dabrowski <p>Book Review by Michael Dabrowski</p> <p><strong>Assessment strategies for online learning: Engagement and Authenticity, 2018.</strong> By Dianne Conrad and Jason Openo, Athabasca University Press 220 pages. doi:10.15215/aupress/9781771992329.01</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Michael Dabrowski Attentional Literacy as a New Literacy: Helping Students Deal with Digital Disarray 2021-02-08T15:29:59-07:00 Mark Pegrum Agnieszka Palalas <p>When students learn online, they do so within a wider context of digital disarray, marked by distraction, disorder and disconnection, which research shows to be far from conducive to effective learning. Specific educational issues include a lack of focus, linked to information overload in an environment characterized by misinformation and disinformation, as well as a lack of connection to the self and others. Arguing that today’s growing focus on digital literacies in education already serves as a partial response to digital disarray, this evidence-based position paper proposes the concept of <em>attentional literacy</em> as a macroliteracy which interweaves elements of now established literacies with the emerging educational discourse of mindfulness. Through attentional literacy, students may gain awareness of how to focus their attention intentionally on the self, the relationship with others, and the informational environment, resulting in a more considered approach to learning coupled with an appreciation of multiple shifting perspectives. Armed with this developing skillset, students stand to benefit more fully from digital educational experiences. Considerations for continuing research in this area include the need to adopt a critical stance on mindfulness, and the need to operationalize attentional literacy for the classroom.</p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mark Pegrum, Agnieszka Palalas