A Brief History of Knowledge Building


  • Marlene Scardamalia University of Toronto
  • Carl Bereiter University of Toronto




Knowledge Building as a theoretical, pedagogical, and technological innovation focuses on the 21st century need to work creatively with knowledge. The team now advancing Knowledge Building spans multiple disciplines, sectors, and cultural contexts. Several teacher-researcher-government partnerships have formed to bring about the systemic changes required to accommodate pedagogical innovations that range from elementary to tertiary education and require new forms of teacher education. This paper tracks the evolution of Knowledge Building, starting with research on “knowledge transforming,” “intentional learning,” and other processes leading to the development of expertise. It provides an account of how the first networked collaborative learning environment was developed to support such processes and next-generation research and development to advance education for innovation and knowledge creation.

Author Biographies

Marlene Scardamalia, University of Toronto

Presidents' Chair in Education and Knowledge Technologies and Director, Institute for Knowledge Innovation and Technology, OISE

Carl Bereiter, University of Toronto

Professor Emeritus, OISE | Ontario Institute for Studies in Education