A review of models and frameworks for designing mobile learning experiences and environments


  • Yu-Chang Hsu Boise State University
  • Yu-Hui Ching Boise State University




Mobile learning, models, frameworks, pedagogies, design


Mobile learning has become increasingly popular in the past decade due to the unprecedented technological affordances achieved through the advancement of mobile computing, making ubiquitous and situated learning possible. At the same time, there have been research and implementation projects whose efforts centered on developing mobile learning experiences for various learners’ profiles, accompanied by the development of models and frameworks for designing mobile learning experiences. This paper focuses on categorizing and synthesizing models and frameworks targeted specifically on mobile learning. A total of 17 papers were reviewed, and the models or frameworks were divided into five categories and discussed: 1) pedagogies and learning environment design; 2) platform/system design; 3) technology acceptance; (4) evaluation; and 5) psychological construct. This paper provides a review and synthesis of the models/frameworks. The categorization and analysis can also help inform evaluation, design, and development of curriculum and environments for meaningful mobile learning experiences for learners of various demographics.

Author Biographies

Yu-Chang Hsu, Boise State University

Yu-Chang Hsu, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Educational Technology at Boise State University. He teaches graduate courses on research methods, graphic design for learning, mobile app design, and emerging trends in Educational Technology. His research interests include learning and instruction innovation through emerging technologies, collaborative learning, and computational thinking.

Yu-Hui Ching, Boise State University

Yu-Hui Ching, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Educational Technology at Boise State University. She teaches graduate level online courses on Instructional Design, Theoretical Foundations of Educational Technology, and Internet for Educators. Her research interests include online teaching and learning, computer-supported collaborative learning, and emerging technologies.